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Michigan Legal Guidelines: Law of Arrest, Search and Seizure, and Confession


PUBLISHER

ISBN

9781641301916

CURRENT EDITION

2018

AUTHOR:

Expert Legal Editor

Estimated Next Edition Date

May 31, 2019

Last Release Date

May 29, 2018

From $49.00

To $58.00

In stock

SKU 80006-01

The Michigan Legal Guidelines presents the Laws of Arrest, Search and Seizure, including Investigative Detentions, Motor Vehicle Stops, Search Warrants and the Exceptions to the Written Warrant Requirement. It also covers laws related to Interviews, Confessions and Miranda, along with other procedural topics designed to assist law enforcement and criminal justice professionals with complying with federal and State constitutional legal requirements.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

 The Michigan Legal Guidelines present the classical and current United States and Michigan court decisions that every law enforcement official needs for a constitutional application of the law. In a clear and concise approach, the manual covers the Laws of Arrest, Search and Seizure, including Investigative Detentions, Motor Vehicle Stops, Search Warrants and the Exceptions to the Written Warrant Requirement. Also included are those specific areas of State court departure, wherein the Michigan Supreme Court may utilize the State Constitution to provide citizens with added protection to their rights and liberties. Rounding out this legal presentation are the laws related to Interviews, Confessions and Miranda, along with other procedural topics designed to assist law enforcement and criminal justice professionals with complying with federal and State constitutional legal requirements.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

 

§1. INTRODUCTION

§1.1. Constitutional analysis

              (a) New Federalism

              (b) Interpreting the Michigan Constitution

§1.2. The Fifth Amendment

§1.3. The Sixth Amendment

§1.4. The Exclusionary Rule

              (a) General aspects

              (b) The Good-Faith Exception

              (c) The “Independent Source” Doctrine

              (d) The “Inevitable Discovery” Rule

 

§2. INVESTIGATIVE DETENTIONS

§2.1. Levels of Encounters

§2.2. Consensual Encounters—The “mere inquiry”

§2.3 Investigative Detentions; “Stop and Frisk”

     (a) Reasonable articulable suspicion for a stop

         (1) The scope of an investigative detention

         (2) Transporting suspects

         (3) Handcuffing suspects

     (b) Reasonable suspicion for a protective “frisk”

     (c) The scope of the protective frisk

     (d) Plain touch

     (e) Various factors to consider

         (1) Prior criminal record

         (2) An officer’s training and experience

         (3) Knowledge of a recent crime in the area

         (4) High-crime/high drug-trafficking areas

         (5) Time period

         (6) Wanted flyers

         (7) Evasive conduct, furtive gestures, etc.

         (8) Flight

         (9) Tips provided by informants

         (10) Drug Courier Profiles

 

     (f) Mere Inquiries, Investigative Stops and Miranda

 

     (g) Investigative detentions of vehicles.—The “motor vehicle or traffic stop”

         (1) General aspects

         (2) A tip of dangerous or erratic driving

         (3) Observed violations

         (4) Permissible activities at, and length of, a traffic stop.

         (5) Roadblocks and checkpoints

         (6) Removing drivers or passengers from the motor vehicle

         (7) A “Terry frisk” of the vehicle’s passenger compartment

         (8) Pretextual stops

 

     (h) Investigative Detentions of Property

 

§3. THE LAW OF ARREST

3.1. General aspects

3.2. The objective standard

3.3. Factors to consider

3.4. The probable cause requirement

3.5. Involuntary transportation to the police station

3.6. An officer’s training, experience and expertise

3.7. The “fellow officer” / “collective knowledge” rule

3.8. Other factors to consider

       (a) High crime areas

       (b) Identification of suspect

  (c) Informants

  (d) Flight, nervousness or evasive maneuvers

         3.9. Arrest with a warrant

       (a) Contents of the arrest warrant

       (b) Delay in making arrest

  (c) Protective sweeps

         3.10. Arrest without a warrant

         3.11. Entry of a dwelling to effect an arrest

  (a) The requirement of exigent circumstances in addition to probable cause

  (b) Exigent circumstances further explored

(1) Community caretaking and emergency aid

(2) Hot pursuit

                        (c) Consent

                        (d) Payton violations and the limits of the exclusionary rule

         3.12. Entry of the home of a third party

         3.13. The “Knock and Announce” Rule

         3.14. Use of force to effect arrest

         3.15. Procedures after arrest

 

§4. SEARCH & SEIZURE

4.1. The written warrant requirement

         (a) Preliminary

         (b) The search warrant affidavit

         (c) Issuance of the warrant

         (d) The particularity requirement

                       (1) The places to be searched

                        (2) The things to be seized

         (e) Judicial requirements

         (f) The probable cause requirement

                        (1) The “totality of the circumstances” test

                       (2) Staleness of probable cause

                       (3) The “four corners” test

         (g) Sources of information / informants

                        (1) Criminal informants

                        (2) Citizen informants

                       (3) Fellow officers

                        (4) Anonymous tips

         (h) Warrant execution; serving the warrant

                        (1) Service

                        (2) Entry & the “knock and announce” rule

         (i) Inventory and return

         (j) Anticipatory warrants

         (k) Scope of the search

 

§4.2. Exceptions to the warrant requirement

              (a) Search incident to a lawful arrest

                             (1) The person of the arrestee and the area within his immediate control

                                           (i) Strip searches

                                           (ii) Fingerprints, photographs and DNA

                                           (iii) The search must be substantially contemporaneous with the arrest

                                           (iv) Minor offenses

                                           (v) Search incident to citation rejected

                                           (vi) Blood and breath alcohol

                                           (vii) Cell phones

                             (2) Motor vehicle searches incident to arrest

              (b) Exigent circumstances

                             (1) Destruction or removal of evidence

                                           (i) Crime scenes

                                           (ii) Evidence about to be destroyed

                                           (iii) Narcotics and other dangerous drugs

                                           (iv) Blood alcohol

                             (2) Safety of the officer or others

                             (3) Hot/fresh pursuit

                             (4) Emergency aid

                             (5) Community caretaking

         (c) Consent searches

                        (1) General aspects

                        (2) Determining whether the consent was voluntary or coerced

                        (3) Express or implied consent

                        (4) Common authority

                        (5) Co-occupants

                        (6) Consent provided by a minor

                        (7) Traffic stops

                        (8) Scope of the consent

         (d) Automobile exception

                        (1) General aspects

                        (2) Closed packages in an automobile

                        (3) Passengers belongings

                        (4) Delayed searches

                       (5) K-9 searches

                        (6) Odor of contraband

                        (7) Motor homes

                        (8) GPS tracking

         (e) Impound and inventory searches

                        (1) General aspects

                        (2) Pre-existing standardized procedures

                        (3) Booking procedures

 

5. PRIVACY EXPECTATIONS

 

         5.1 Preliminary

                             (a) Listening devices

                             (b) Presence of the media during warrant execution

                             (c) Thermal imaging devices

                             (d) Use of a flashlight

                             (e) Drug field test not a search

                             (f) Use of a drug-sniffing dog on a homeowner’s porch

                             (g) The VIN of an automobile

                             (h) Reasonable expectations of privacy and a person’s physical appearance

                                           (1) Facial characteristics

                                           (2) Fingerprints

                                           (3) The physical characteristics of a person’s voice

                                           (4) Handwriting

                                           (5) Soles of a person’s shoes

                             (i) Arrest records

                             (j) The passenger area of a commercial bus

                             (k) Parking lots

 

              §5.2. Open Fields

 

              §5.3. Plain View

                             (a) General aspects

                             (b) Use of a flashlight

                             (c) Aerial observations

 

              §5.4 Abandonment

                             (a) General aspects

                             (b) Abandoned structures

                             (c) Curbside garbage

                             (d) Denying ownership

 

 

§6. ADMINISTRATIVE AND REGULATORY SEARCHES

 

       §6.1. Administrative searches

 

       §6.2. Regulatory searches

 

       §6.3. Fire scenes

              §6.3(a) Preliminary considerations

              §6.3(b) The warrant requirement and fire scene entries

 

 

§7. PRIVATE SEARCHES

 

§7.1. General aspects

 

§7.2. The target of the exclusionary rule

 

 

8. FOREIGN NATIONALS

 

       §8.1. Notification of rights

 

       §8.2. Waiver of rights

 

       §8.3. Diplomatic immunity

 

9. CONFESSION LAW

 

§9.1. Introduction

       §9.1(a) The Fifth Amendment

       §9.1(b) The Miranda requirements

       §9.1(c) The Miranda formula

 

§9.2. Interviews and confessions

 

       §9.2(a) Preliminary issues

               (1) Uncorroborated confessions and the “corpus delicti” rule

               (2) Electronic recordings of custodial interrogations

               (3) Volunteered statements

 

       §9.2(b) What constitutes custody?

              (1) General aspects

              (2) A motor vehicle stop is not Miranda custody

              (3) Stationhouse questioning

              (4) Hospital settings

              (5) When the suspect is a juvenile, age should be taken into account

              (6) Prison custody is not Miranda custody

 

       §9.2(c) What constitutes interrogation?

              (1) General aspects

              (2) The Fifth Amendment setting

              (3) The Sixth Amendment setting

                             (i) The “Christian burial” case

                             (ii) After indictment

                             (iii) When the right to counsel attaches

 

 §9.3. Miranda

 

       §9.3(a) Administration; when to advise

       §9.3(b) Miranda and motor vehicle offenses

       §9.3(c) The public safety exception

       §9.3(d) The impeachment exception

 

§9.4. Events surrounding the interrogation process

 

§9.4(a) Invocation of rights

       (1) The right to remain silent

       (2) The right to counsel

 

§9.4(b) Waiver of rights

              (1) General aspects

                   (2) Illegal detention

                             (3) Outside influences