New York Search & Seizure Survival Guide 2021 Edition

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CURRENT EDITION 2021
VOLUMES 1
PAGES 274
AUTHOR Anthony Bandiero, JD, ALM
ESTIMATED NEXT EDITION DATE March 31, 2022
LAST RELEASE DATE March 19, 2021
New York Search & Seizure Survival Guide 2021 Edition

In stock

$24.95

This book includes important concepts every law enforcement officer should know about search and seizure law in the State of New York. The book is organized as a field guide, with case examples, and legal standards and elements set forth in checklists.

The Fourth Amendment only prohibits one type of search or seizure, the unreasonable one. Therefore, if you’re being “reasonable,” you’re being lawful. Yet, what does it mean to be reasonable? Ask most officers if they are “reasonable” and the replies will assuredly be a resounding “yes.”

So why do we need this book? Because courts do not determine the constitutionality of a search or seizure issue on what officers think. Instead, the courts want officers to articulate certain key factors depending on what type of intrusion took place. When those factors have been satisfied the courts more often than not find the intrusion to be reasonable under the Fourth Amendment.

This book explains what those factors are. It’s written in a checklist type format and officers around the country have expressed their appreciation for its down-to-earth writing style and easy-to-apply format. Use this book as a training tool. Or reference it while writing your report. And remember, the most important report writing tool is articulation. Articulate, articulate, articulate these factors and others you think are important. That’s how you win trials and avoid needless suppression hearings.”

 

Anthony Bandiero, March 2021

1.   LET’S START WITH THE BASICS
   1.1   Fourth Amendment
   1.2   Fifth Amendment
   1.3   The Right ‘To be Left Alone’
   1.4   Decision Sequencing
   1.5   C.R.E.W.
   1.6   Fourth Amendment Reasonableness
   1.7   Private Searches
   1.8   “Hunches” Defined
   1.9   Reasonable Suspicion Defined
   1.10   Probable Cause Defined
   1.11   Collective Knowledge Doctrine
   1.12   What is a “Search” Under the Fourth Amendment?
   1.13   What is a “Seizure” Under New York Law?
2.   CONSENSUAL ENCOUNTERS
   2.1   De Bour Factors
   2.2   Knock and Talks
   2.3   Investigative Activities During Consensual Encounter
   2.4   Asking for Identification
   2.5   Removing Hands from Pockets
   2.6   Transporting to Police Station
   2.7   Consent to Search
   2.8   Third-Party Consent
   2.9   Mistaken Authority to Consent
3.   INVESTIGATIVE DETENTIONS
   3.1   Reasonable Suspicion Defined
   3.2   Detaining a Suspect
   3.3   How Long Can Detentions Last?
   3.4   Investigative Techniques During a Stop
   3.5   Identifications - in the Field
   3.6   Unprovoked Flight Upon Seeing an Officer
   3.7   Detentions Based on an Anonymous Tip
   3.8   Handcuffing and Use of Force
   3.9   Detaining Victims or Witnesses
   3.10   Patdown for Weapons
   3.11   Patdown Based on Anonymous Tips
   3.12   Plain Touch Doctrine
   3.13   Involuntary Transportation Back to Crime Scene
   3.14   Detaining People Who Publicly Record Police Officers
4.   ARRESTS
   4.1   Probable Cause Defined
   4.2   Lawful Arrest
   4.3   Entry into Home with Arrest Warrant
   4.4   Warrantless Entry to Make Arrest
   4.5   Private Searches
   4.6   Collective Knowledge Doctrine
   4.7   Meaning of “Committed in the Officer’s Presence?”
   4.8   Line-Ups
   4.9   Protective Sweeps
   4.10   When to “Unarrest” a Suspect
   4.11   “Contempt of Cop” Arrests
   4.12   Arrests at Public Protests
   4.13   Search Incident to Arrest
   4.14   Search Prior to Formal Arrest
   4.15   Search Incident to a “Temporary” Arrest
   4.16   Attempt to Swallow Drugs
   4.17   DUI Breath Tests
   4.18   DUI Blood Tests
   4.19   Searching Vehicle Incident to Arrest
5.   VEHICLES
   5.1   General Rule
   5.2   Scope of Stop Similar to an Investigative Detention
   5.3   Community Caretaking Stops
   5.4   Reasonable Suspicion Stops
   5.5   Stops to Verify Temporary Registration
   5.6   DUI Checkpoints
   5.7   Information Gathering Checkpoints
   5.8   Legal Considerations for Any Checkpoint
   5.9   Ordering Passengers to Stay in, or Exit Vehicle
   5.10   Detaining a Recent Vehicle Occupant
   5.11   Consent to Search a Vehicle
   5.12   Frisking Vehicle and Occupants for Weapons
   5.13   Frisking People Who Ride in Police Vehicle
   5.14   K9 Sniff Around Vehicle
   5.15   Searching Vehicle Incident to Arrest
   5.16   Searching Vehicle with Probable Cause
   5.17   Dangerous Items Left in Vehicle
   5.18   Inventories
   5.19   Identifying Passengers
   5.20   Unrelated Questioning
   5.21   Constructive Possession
6.   HOMES
   6.1   Warrant Requirement
   6.2   Hotel Rooms, Tents, RVs, and so Forth
   6.3   Knock and Talks
   6.4   Open Fields
   6.5   Curtilage
   6.6   Plain View Seizure
   6.7   Trash Searches
   6.8   Consent to Search by Co-Occupants
   6.9   Parental Consent to Search Child’s Room
   6.10   Mistaken Authority to Consent
   6.11   Protective Sweeps
   6.12   Hot Pursuit and Fresh Pursuit
   6.13   Warrantless Arrest at Doorway
   6.14   Warrantless Entry to Make Arrest
   6.15   Warrantless Entry for an Emergency
   6.16   Warrantless Entry for Officer Safety
   6.17   Warrantless Entry to Investigate Child Abuse
   6.18   Warrantless Entry to Protect Property
   6.19   Warrantless Entry to Investigate Homicide Crime
   6.20   Warrantless Entry to Prevent Destruction of Evidence
   6.21   Warrantless Entry Based on “Ruse” or Lie
   6.22   Convincing Suspect to Exit Based on “Ruse” or Lie
   6.23   Detaining a Home in Anticipation of a Warrant
   6.24   Surround and Call-Out
7.   BUSINESSES & SCHOOLS
   7.1   Warrantless Arrest Inside Business
   7.2   Customer Business Records
   7.3   Heavily Regulated Businesses
   7.4   Fire, Health, and Safety Inspections
   7.5   Government Workplace Searches
   7.6   School Searches
   7.7   Student Drug Testing
   7.8   SROs, Security Guards, and Administrators
   7.9   Use of Force Against Students
8.   PERSONAL PROPERTY
   8.1   Searching Containers
   8.2   Single Purpose Container Doctrine
   8.3   Searching Abandoned or Lost Property
   8.4   Searching Mail or Packages
9.   TECHNOLOGY SEARCHES
   9.1   Sensory Enhancements
   9.2   Flashlights
   9.3   Binoculars
   9.4   Night Vision Goggles
   9.5   Thermal Imaging
   9.6   Cell Phones, Laptops, and Tablets
   9.7   Cell Phone Location Records
   9.8   Aerial Surveillance
   9.9   GPS Devices
   9.10   Obtaining Passwords
10.   MISCELLANEOUS SEARCHES & SEIZURES
   10.1   Cause-of-Injury Searches
   10.2   Medical Procedures
   10.3   Discarded DNA
   10.4   Fingernail Scrapes
   10.5   Arson Investigations
   10.6   Airport & Other Administrative Checkpoints
   10.7   Border Searches
   10.8   Probationer & Parolee Searches
11.   SEARCH WARRANTS
   11.1   Overview
   11.2   Why Get a Warrant, Even if You Don’t Need to?
   11.3   Particularity Requirement
   11.4   Anticipatory Search Warrant
   11.5   Confidential Informants
   11.6   Sealing Affidavits
   11.7   Knock and Announce
   11.8   Detaining Occupants Inside and in Immediate Vicinity
   11.9   Frisking Occupants
   11.10   Handcuffing Occupants
   11.11   Serving Arrest Warrant at Residence
   11.12   Wrong Address Liability
   11.13   Receipt, Return, and Inventory
12.   USE OF FORCE
   12.1   Non-Deadly Force
   12.2   Use of Force to Prevent Escape
   12.3   Deadly Force During Vehicle Pursuit
   12.4   Improper Handcuffing
   12.5   Pointing Gun at Suspect
   12.6   Using Patrol (i.e., Bite) Dogs
   12.7   Hog/Hobble Tie
13.   INTERVIEW AND INTERROGATION
   13.1   When Miranda is Required
   13.2   Miranda Elements
   13.3   Coercive Influences and De Facto Arrests
   13.4   Miranda Inside Jail and Prison
   13.5   Miranda for Juveniles
   13.6   Witnesses and Victims
   13.7   Invocation Prior to Interrogation
   13.8   Ambiguous Invocations
   13.9   Suspect Invoked, Now What?
   13.10   Suspect Invoked, Now Wants to Talk
   13.11   Intentional Versus Accidental Miranda Violations
   13.12   When to Provide Miranda Again
   13.13   Public Safety Exception
   13.14   Routine Booking Questions
   13.15   Evidence Discovered after Miranda Violation
14.   LAW ENFORCEMENT LIABILITY
   14.1   Exclusionary Rule
   14.2   Exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule
   14.3   Fruit of the Poisonous Tree
   14.4   Standing to Object
   14.5   Good Faith Exception
   14.6   Attenuation
   14.7   Inevitable or Independent Discovery
   14.8   Duty to Protect
   14.9   Duty to Intervene
   14.10   Supervisor Liability
   14.11   Unequal Enforcement of the Law
   14.12   Behavior that “Shocks the Conscious”
   14.13   Deliberate Indifference
   14.14   Sharing Crime Scene Photos on Social Media
   14.15   Section 1983 Civil Rights Violations
   14.16   Section 242 Criminal Charges
   14.17   Bringing Non-Essential Personnel Into the Home
   14.18   Qualified Immunity
15.   LEGAL CHECKLISTS
   15.1   Consensual Encounters
   15.2   Investigative Detentions
   15.3   Arrests
   15.4   Vehicles
   15.5   Homes
   15.6   Personal Property
   15.7   Interview & Interrogation
INDEX

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