Search & Seizure Survival Guide: 4th Edition (2023)

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CURRENT EDITION 4th Edition (2023)
AUTHOR Anthony Bandiero
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Search & Seizure Survival Guide: 4th Edition (2023)

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Search & Seizure Survival Guide, a Field Guide for Law Enforcement, provides concise, targeted information for police officers.  The Fourth Amendment only prohibits one type of search or seizure, the unreasonable one.  This book explains what those factors are. It is written in a checklist type format and officers around the country have expressed their appreciation for its down-to-Earth writing style and easy-to-apply format.

The Fourth Amendment only prohibits one type of search or seizure, the unreasonable one. Therefore, if you’re being “reasonable,” you’re being lawful. Yet, what does it mean to be reasonable? Ask most officers if they are “reasonable,” and the replies will assuredly be a resounding “yes.”


So why do we need this book? Because courts do not determine the constitutionality of a search or seizure issue on what officers think. Instead, the courts want officers to articulate certain key factors depending on what type of intrusion occurred. Then, when those factors have been satisfied, the courts, more often than not, will find the intrusion reasonable under the Fourth Amendment.


This book explains those factors and is updated to include the latest U.S. Supreme Court decisions. In addition, the author uses a checklist format to help officers articulate reasonable cause.  Officers around the country have expressed their appreciation for its down-to-earth writing style and easy-to-use format. Use this book as a training tool, reference while writing reports or studying for exams.

   1.1   Fourth Amendment
   1.2   Fifth Amendment
   1.3   Three Golden Rules of Search & Seizure
   1.4   The Right ‘To be Left Alone’
   1.5   Decision Sequencing
   1.6   C.R.E.W.  
   1.7   Fourth Amendment Reasonableness
   1.8   Private Searches
   1.9   “Hunches” Defined
   1.10  Reasonable Suspicion Defined
   1.11  Probable Cause Defined
   1.12  Collective Knowledge Doctrine
   1.13  What is a “Search” Under the Fourth Amendment?
   1.14  What is a “Seizure” Under New York Law?
   2.1   Consensual Encounters
   2.2   Knock and Talks
   2.3   Investigative Activities During Consensual Encounter
   2.4   Asking for Identification
   2.5   Removing Hands from Pockets
   2.6   Transporting to Police Station
   2.7   Consent to Search
   2.8   Third-Party Consent
   2.9   Mistaken Authority to Consent
   3.1   Specific Factors to Consider
   3.2   Detaining a Suspect
   3.3   Officer Safety Detentions
   3.4   Detaining Victims or Witnesses
   3.5   How Long Can Detentions Last?
   3.6   Investigative Techniques During a Stop
   3.7   Identifications - in the Field
   3.8   Unprovoked Flight
   3.9   Detentions Based on an Anonymous Tip
3.10 Handcuffing and Use of Force
   3.11   Patdown for Weapons
   3.12   Patdown Based on Anonymous Tips
   3.13   Plain Touch Doctrine
   3.14   Involuntary Transportation
   3.15   Detaining People Who Publicly Record Police Officers
   4.1   Lawful Arrest
   4.2   Entry into Home with Arrest Warrant
   4.3   Warrantless Entry to Make Arrest
   4.4   Collective Knowledge Doctrine
   4.5   Meaning of “Committed in the Officer’s Presence?”
   4.6   Line-Ups
   4.7   Protective Sweeps
   4.8   When to “Unarrest” a Suspect
   4.9   “Contempt of Cop” Arrests
   4.10   Arrests at Public Protests
   4.11   Search Incident to Arrest
   4.12   Search Prior to Formal Arrest
   4.13   Search Incident to a “Temporary” Arrest
   4.14   Attempt to Swallow Drugs
   4.15   DUI Breath Tests
   4.16   DUI Blood Tests
   4.17   Searching Vehicle Incident to Arrest
   5.1   General Rule
   5.2   Scope of Stop Similar to an Investigative Detention
   5.3   Community Caretaking Stops
   5.4   Reasonable Suspicion Stops
   5.5   Stops to Verify Temporary Registration
   5.6   DUI Checkpoints
   5.7   Information Gathering Checkpoints
   5.8   Legal Considerations for Any Checkpoint
   5.9   Ordering Passengers to Stay in, or Exit Vehicle
   5.10   Detaining a Recent Vehicle Occupant
   5.11   Consent to Search a Vehicle
   5.12   Searching Vehicle and Occupants for Weapons
   5.13   Frisking People Who Ride in Police Vehicle
   5.14   K9 Sniff Around Vehicle
   5.15   Searching Vehicle Incident to Arrest
   5.16   Searching Vehicle with Probable Cause
   5.17   Dangerous Items Left in Vehicle
   5.18   Inventories
   5.19   Identifying Passengers
   5.20   Unrelated Questioning
   5.21   Constructive Possession
   6.1   Warrant Requirement
   6.2   Hotel Rooms, Tents, and RVs
   6.3   Knock and Talks
   6.4   Open Fields
   6.5   Curtilage
   6.6   Plain View, Hearing, Smell
   6.7   Trash Searches
   6.8   Consent to Search by Co-Occupants
   6.9   Parental Consent to Search Child’s Room
   6.10   Mistaken Authority to Consent
   6.11   Protective Sweeps
   6.12   Hot Pursuit and Fresh Pursuit
   6.13   Warrantless Arrest at Doorway
   6.14   Warrantless Entry to Make Arrest
   6.15   Warrantless Entry for an Emergency
   6.16   Warrantless Entry for Officer Safety
   6.17   Warrantless Entry to Investigate Child Abuse
   6.18   Warrantless Entry to Protect Property
   6.19   Warrantless Entry to Investigate Homicide Crime
   6.20   Warrantless Entry to Prevent Destruction of Evidence
   6.21   Warrantless Entry Based on “Ruse” or Lie
   6.22   Using Ruses to Get Occupants to Leave Home
   6.23   Impounding a Home in Anticipation of a Warrant
   6.24   Surround and Call-Out
   7.1   Warrantless Arrest Inside Business
   7.2   Customer Business Records
   7.3   Heavily Regulated Businesses
   7.4   Fire, Health, and Safety Inspections
   7.5   Government Workplace Searches
   7.6   School Searches
   7.7   Student Drug Testing
   7.8   SROs, Security Guards, and Administrators
   7.9   Use of Force Against Students
   8.1   Searching Containers
   8.2   Single Purpose Container Doctrine
   8.3   Searching Abandoned or Lost Property
   8.4   Searching Mail or Packages
   9.1   Sensory Enhancements
   9.2   Flashlights
   9.3   Binoculars
   9.4   Night Vision Goggles
   9.5   Thermal Imaging
   9.6   Cell Phones, Laptops, and Tablets
   9.7   Cell Phone Location Records
   9.8   Aerial Surveillance
   9.9   Drones
   9.10  Pole Cameras
   9.11  Automatic License Plate Readers
   9.12  GPS Devices
   9.13  Obtaining Passwords
   10.1   Cause-of-Injury Searches
   10.2   Medical Procedures
   10.3   Discarded DNA
   10.4   Fingernail Scrapes
   10.5   Arson Investigations
   10.6   Airport & Other Administrative Checkpoints
   10.7   Border Searches
   10.8   Probationer & Parolee Searches
   11.1   Overview
   11.2   Why Get a Warrant, Even if You Don’t Need to?
   11.3   Particularity Requirement
   11.4   Anticipatory Search Warrant
   11.5   Confidential Informants
   11.6   Sealing Affidavits
   11.7   Knock and Announce
   11.8   Detaining Occupants Inside and in Immediate Vicinity
   11.9   Frisking Occupants
   11.10   Handcuffing Occupants
   11.11   Serving Arrest Warrant at Residence
   11.12   Wrong Address Liability
   11.13   Receipt, Return, and Inventory
   12.1   Non-Deadly Force
   12.2   Use of Force to Prevent Escape
   12.3   Deadly Force During Vehicle Pursuit
   12.4   Improper Handcuffing
   12.5   Pointing Gun at Suspect
   12.6   Using Patrol (i.e., Bite) Dogs
   12.7   Hog/Hobble Tie
   13.1   When Miranda is Required
   13.2   Miranda Elements
   13.3   Coercive Influences and De Facto Arrests
   13.4   Miranda Inside Jail and Prison
   13.5   Miranda for Juveniles
   13.6   Witnesses and Victims
   13.7   Invocation Prior to Interrogation
   13.8   Ambiguous Invocations
   13.9   Suspect Invoked, Now What?
   13.10   Suspect Invoked, Now Wants to Talk
   13.11   Intentional Versus Accidental Miranda Violations
   13.12   When to Provide Miranda Again
   13.13   Public Safety Exception
   13.14   Routine Booking Questions
   13.15   Evidence Discovered after Miranda Violation
   14.1   Exclusionary Rule
   14.2   Exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule
   14.3   Fruit of the Poisonous Tree
   14.4   Standing to Object
   14.5   Good Faith Exception
   14.6   Attenuation
   14.7   Inevitable or Independent Discovery
   14.8   Duty to Protect
   14.9   Duty to Intervene
   14.10   Supervisor Liability
   14.11   Unequal Enforcement of the Law
   14.12   Behavior that “Shocks the Conscious”
   14.13   Deliberate Indifference
   14.14   Sharing Crime Scene Photos on Social Media
   14.15   Section 1983 Civil Rights Violations
   14.16   Section 242 Criminal Charges
   14.17   Bringing Non-Essential Personnel Into the Home
   14.18   Qualified Immunity
   15.1   Consensual Encounters
         15.1.1 Generally
         15.1.2 Knock and Talks
         15.1.3 Investigative Activities During Consensual Encounter
         15.1.4 Asking for Identification
         15.1.5 Removing Hands from Pockets
         15.1.6 Transporting to Police Station
         15.1.7 Consent to Search
         15.1.8 Third-Party Consent
         15.1.9 Articulating Greater Authority
         15.1.10 Mistaken Authority to Consent
 15.2   Investigative Detentions
          15.2.1 Reasonable Suspicion Defined
          15.2.2 Detaining a Suspect
          15.2.3 Duration of Detentions
          15.2.4 Investigative Techniques
          15.2.5 Identifications in the Field
          15.2.6 Unprovoked Flight
          15.2.7 Detentions Based on Anonymous Tip
          15.2.8 Handcuffing and Use of Force
          15.2.9 Detaining Victims or Witnesses
          15.2.10 Pat Down for Weapons
          15.2.11 Pat Down Based on Anonymous Tip
          15.2.12 Plain Touch Doctrine
          15.2.13 Involuntary Transportation
   15.3   Arrests
          15.3.1 Entry into Home with Arrest Warrant
          15.3.2 Warrantless Entry to Make Arrest
          15.3.3 Private Searches
          15.3.4 Collective Knowledge Doctrine
          15.3.5 Meaning of “Committed in the Officer’s Presence?”
          15.3.6 Identifications
          15.3.7 Protective Sweeps
          15.3.8 When to Unarrest a Suspect
          15.3.9 Attempt to Swallow Drugs
   15.4   Vehicles
          15.4.1 Community Caretaking Stops
          15.4.2 Reasonable Suspicion Stops
          15.4.3 Controlling Passengers
          15.4.4 Consent to Search Vehicle
          15.4.5 Searching Vehicle and Occupants for Weapons
          15.4.6 K9 Sniff Around Vehicle
          15.4.7 Searching Vehicle Incident to Arrest
          15.4.8 Searching Vehicle with Probable Cause
          15.4.9 Inventories
          15.4.10 Constructive Possession
  15.5   Homes
        15.5.1 Knock and Talks
        15.5.2 Curtilage
        15.5.3 Plain View, Hearing, Smell
        15.5.4 Consent to Search by Co-Occupants
        15.5.5 Protective Sweeps
        15.5.6 Warrantless Entry for Emergency
        15.5.7 Warrantless Entry to Prevent the Destruction of Evidence
        15.5.8 Impounding a Home in Anticipation of Warrant
 15.6   Personal Property
        15.6.1 Searching Containers
        15.6.2 Searching Abandoned or Lost Property
 15.7   Interview & Interrogation
         15.7.1 When Miranda is Required
         15.7.2 Miranda Elements
         15.7.3 Miranda inside Jail and Prison
         15.7.4 Ambiguous Invocations
         15.7.5 Suspect Invoked, Now What?
         15.7.6 Suspect Invoked, Now Wants to Talk
         15.7.8 Public Safety Exception


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